SegWit is Coming to Coinbase and Bitfinex’s Bitcoin Exchanges

Source: SegWit is Coming to Coinbase and Bitfinex’s Bitcoin Exchanges

Today, two of the world’s largest cryptocurrency investment platforms, Coinbase and Bitfinex, both announced that they were adopting support for Segregated Witness (SegWit) protocols for bitcoin (BTC) traded on their exchanges.

In its announcement, Bitfinex stated, “The SegWit implementation means Bitfinex users can benefit from lower BTC withdrawal fees (approximately 15 percent) and improved processing times on transactions across the Bitcoin network.” The exchange did make clear that the support for bitcoin deposits and withdrawals using pay-to-script-hash (P2SH) SegWit addresses were the only ones thus far slated for bitcoin and not applicable to bitcoin cash (BCH).

Coinbase, on the other hand, tweeted that it had finished testing for SegWit for Bitcoin. It will phase in the launch, with the goal of “targeting a 100% launch to all customers by mid next week.” Coinbase affirmed its plan for a 2018 SegWit implementation on December 15, 2017 and seemingly delivered on the SegWit statements it made on February 13, 2018.

Reasons for the support of using SegWit addresses are clear.  Prior to the activation of the Segregated Witness soft fork in August 2017, there were concerns about the scalability and malleability of Bitcoin due to the size limit of the blocks and a potential manipulation of the transaction ID. These concerns had been a source of debate for years until the “soft fork” allowed for protocol upgrades to the software.

Coinbase, the biggest crypto broker and one of the biggest exchange
Coinbase, the biggest crypto broker and one of the biggest exchange

While many hard and soft wallets already adopted support for SegWit protocols, the move by both companies is huge given the volume of bitcoin traded on each platform. At the time of this writing, both Bitfinex and Coinbase’s exchange, GDAX, accounted for nearly one tenth of global bitcoin trades over the previous 24 hours. This number underestimates the impact on BTC trading volume as it does not include Coinbase’s wallet platform. Both Bitfinex and GDAX are ranked as top 10 exchanges in the world by trading volume, at 5th and 8th, respectively.

The positive news for both exchanges comes at a time of mounting pressure from the public. Coinbase has faced community backlash on higher Bitcoin transaction fees, customers’ inability to withdraw funds to PayPal accounts and credit cards being disabled as a payment method for U.S. customers.

Bitfinex’s announcement comes on the heels of a tumultuous end to 2017 and a rough start to 2018, inclusive of new account registration issues, a CFTC subpoena and firing of auditor Friedman LLP.

With the announcements of SegWit adoption for Bitcoin, it seems that Coinbase has addressed a major issue for its consumer base, and Bitfinex has been able to release some much-needed positive news for its customers amidst its recent controversies.

For more information on Segregated Witness, check out our earlier articleson Bitcoin Magazine.

Coinbase, the biggest crypto broker and one of the biggest exchange

Support the Bitcoin network by running your own full node

Running A Full Node

Support the Bitcoin network by running your own full node

What Is A Full Node?

A full node is a program that fully validates transactions and blocks. Almost all full nodes also help the network by accepting transactions and blocks from other full nodes, validating those transactions and blocks, and then relaying them to further full nodes.

Most full nodes also serve lightweight clients by allowing them to transmit their transactions to the network and by notifying them when a transaction affects their wallet. If not enough nodes perform this function, clients won’t be able to connect through the peer-to-peer network—they’ll have to use centralized services instead.

Many people and organizations volunteer to run full nodes using spare computing and bandwidth resources—but more volunteers are needed to allow Bitcoin to continue to grow. This document describes how you can help and what helping will cost you.

Costs And Warnings

Running a Bitcoin full node comes with certain costs and can expose you to certain risks. This section will explain those costs and risks so you can decide whether you’re able to help the network.

Special Cases

Miners, businesses, and privacy-conscious users rely on particular behavior from the full nodes they use, so they will often run their own full nodes and take special safety precautions. This document does not cover those precautions—it only describes running a full node to help support the Bitcoin network in general.

Please seek out assistance in the community if you need help setting up your full node correctly to handle high-value and privacy-sensitive tasks. Do your own diligence to ensure who you get help from is ethical, reputable and qualified to assist you.

Secure Your Wallet

It’s possible and safe to run a full node to support the network and use its wallet to store your bitcoins, but you must take the same precautions you would when using any Bitcoin wallet. Please see the securing your wallet page for more information.

Minimum Requirements

Bitcoin Core full nodes have certain requirements. If you try running a node on weak hardware, it may work—but you’ll likely spend more time dealing with issues. If you can meet the following requirements, you’ll have an easy-to-use node.

  • Desktop or laptop hardware running recent versions of Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux.
  • 145 gigabytes of free disk space, accessable at a minimum read/write speed of 100 MB/s.
  • 2 gigabytes of memory (RAM)
  • A broadband Internet connection with upload speeds of at least 400 kilobits (50 kilobytes) per second
  • An unmetered connection, a connection with high upload limits, or a connection you regularly monitor to ensure it doesn’t exceed its upload limits. It’s common for full nodes on high-speed connections to use 200 gigabytes upload or more a month. Download usage is around 20 gigabytes a month, plus around an additional 140 gigabytes the first time you start your node.
  • 6 hours a day that your full node can be left running. (You can do other things with your computer while running a full node.) More hours would be better, and best of all would be if you can run your node continuously.

    Note: many operating systems today (Windows, Mac, and Linux) enter a low-power mode after the screensaver activates, slowing or halting network traffic. This is often the default setting on laptops and on all Mac OS X laptops and desktops. Check your screensaver settings and disable automatic “sleep” or “suspend” options to ensure you support the network whenever your computer is running.

Possible Problems

  • Legal: Bitcoin use is prohibited or restricted in some areas.
  • Bandwidth limits: Some Internet plans will charge an additional amount for any excess upload bandwidth used that isn’t included in the plan. Worse, some providers may terminate your connection without warning because of overuse. We advise that you check whether your Internet connection is subjected to such limitations and monitor your bandwidth use so that you can stop Bitcoin Core before you reach your upload limit.
  • Anti-virus: Several people have placed parts of known computer viruses in the Bitcoin block chain. This block chain data can’t infect your computer, but some anti-virus programs quarantine the data anyway, making it more difficult to run Bitcoin Core. This problem mostly affects computers running Windows.
  • Attack target: Bitcoin Core powers the Bitcoin peer-to-peer network, so people who want to disrupt the network may attack Bitcoin Core users in ways that will affect other things you do with your computer, such as an attack that limits your available download bandwidth.

Linux Instructions

The following instructions describe installing Bitcoin Core on Linux systems.

Ubuntu 16.10

*Instructions for Bitcoin Core 0.14.2

If you use Ubuntu Desktop, click the Ubuntu swirl icon to start the Dash and type “term” into the input box. Choose any one of the terminals listed:

Dash term

Alternatively, access a console or terminal emulator using another method, such as SSH on Ubuntu Server or a terminal launcher in an alternative desktop environment.

Type the following line to add the Bitcoin Personal Package Archive (PPA) to your system:

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:bitcoin/bitcoin

You will be prompted for your user password. Provide it to continue. Afterwards, the following text will be displayed:

Stable Channel of bitcoin-qt and bitcoind for Ubuntu, and their
dependencies

Note that you should prefer to use the official binaries, where possible, to
limit trust in Launchpad/the PPA owner.

No longer supports precise, due to its ancient gcc and Boost versions.
More info: https://launchpad.net/~bitcoin/+archive/ubuntu/bitcoin
Press [ENTER] to continue or ctrl-c to cancel adding it

Press enter to continue. The following text (with some variations) will be displayed and you will be returned to the command line prompt:

gpg: keyring `/tmp/tmpixuqu73x/secring.gpg' created
gpg: keyring `/tmp/tmpixuqu73x/pubring.gpg' created
gpg: requesting key 8842CE5E from hkp server keyserver.ubuntu.com
gpg: /tmp/tmpixuqu73x/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key 8842CE5E: public key "Launchpad PPA for Bitcoin" imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1  (RSA: 1)
OK

Type the following line to get the most recent list of packages:

sudo apt-get update

A large number of lines will be displayed as different update files are downloaded. This step may take several minutes on a slow Internet connection.

To continue, choose one of the following options

  1. To install the Bitcoin Core Graphical User Interface (GUI), type the following line and proceed to the Bitcoin Core GUI section below:
     sudo apt-get install bitcoin-qt
    
  2. To install the Bitcoin Core daemon (bitcoind), which is useful for programmers and advanced users, type the following line and proceed to the Bitcoin Core Daemon section below:
     sudo apt-get install bitcoind
    
  3. To install both the GUI and the daemon, type the following line and read both the GUI instructions and the daemon instructions. Note that you can’t run both the GUI and the daemon at the same time using the same configuration directory.
     sudo apt-get install bitcoin-qt bitcoind
    

After choosing what packages to install, you will be asked whether you want to proceed. Press enter to continue.

Bitcoin Core GUI

To start Bitcoin Core GUI, click the Ubuntu swirl icon to open the Dash, type bitcoin, and click the Bitcoin icon.

Dash Bitcoin-Qt

You will be prompted to choose a directory to store the Bitcoin block chain and your wallet. Unless you have a separate partition or drive you want to use, click Ok to use the default.

Bitcoin-Qt Welcome

Bitcoin Core GUI will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time by closing it; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Bitcoin-Qt Initial Block Download

After download is complete, you may use Bitcoin Core as your wallet or you can just let it run to help support the Bitcoin network.

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core GUI to start at login.

While running Bitcoin Core GUI, open the Settings menu and choose Options. On the Main tab, click Start Bitcoin on system login. Click the Ok button to save the new settings.

Choosing to start Bitcoin Core at login

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core GUI will be automatically started in as an icon in the tray.

Bitcoin-Qt Tray Icon

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Bitcoin Core Daemon

If you’re logged in as an administrative user with sudo access, you may log out. The steps in this section should be performed as the user you want to run Bitcoin Core. (If you’re an expert administrator, you can make this a locked account used only by Bitcoin Core.)

From the terminal, type:

bitcoind -daemon

It will print a message that Bitcoin Core is starting. To interact with Bitcoin Core daemon, you will use the command bitcoin-cli (Bitcoin command line interface).

Note: it may take up to several minutes for Bitcoin Core to start, during which it will display the following message whenever you use bitcoin-cli:

error: {"code":-28,"message":"Verifying blocks..."}

After it starts, you may find the following commands useful for basic interaction with your node: getblockchaininfogetnetworkinfogetnettotals,getwalletinfostop, and help.

For example, to safely stop your node, run the following command:

bitcoin-cli stop

A complete list of commands is available in the Bitcoin.org developer reference.

When Bitcoin Core daemon first starts, it will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time using the stop command; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Optional: Start Your Node At Boot

Starting your node automatically each time your computer boots makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to start Bitcoin Core daemon from your crontab. To edit your crontab, run the following command:

crontab -e

Scroll to the bottom of the file displayed and add the following line:

@reboot bitcoind -daemon

Save the file and exit; the updated crontab file will be installed for you. Now Bitcoin Core daemon will be automatically started each time your reboot your computer.

If you’re an Ubuntu expert and want to use an init script instead, see this Upstart script.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Other Linux Distributions

*Instructions for Bitcoin Core 0.14.2

The following instructions describe installing Bitcoin Core using tools available in most mainstream Linux distributions. We assume you use a Bourne-like shell such as bash.

Using any computer, go to the Bitcoin Core download page and verify you have made a secure connection to the server.

Verify secure connection

In the “Linux (tgz)” section of the Download page, choose the appropriate file for your Linux install (either 32-bit or 64-bit) and download the file. If necessary, move the file to the computer you want to use to run Bitcoin Core.

Optional: Verify the release signatures

If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key with the fingerprint:

01EA 5486 DE18 A882 D4C2  6845 90C8 019E 36C2 E964

Earlier releases were signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s regular key. That key’s fingerprint is:

71A3 B167 3540 5025 D447  E8F2 7481 0B01 2346 C9A6

Even earlier releases were signed by Gavin Andresen’s key. His primary key’s fingerprint is:

2664 6D99 CBAE C9B8 1982  EF60 29D9 EE6B 1FC7 30C1

You should verify these keys belong to their owners using the web of trust or other trustworthy means. Then use PGP to verify the signature on the release signatures file. Finally, use PGP or another utility to compute the SHA256 hash of the archive you downloaded, and ensure the computed hash matches the hash listed in the verified release signatures file.

If you aren’t already logged into the computer you want to install Bitcoin on, login now. Make sure you use an account that can use su or sudo to install software into directories owned by the root user.

If you logged in graphically, start a terminal. If you logged in another way, we will assume you’re already in a shell.

Locate the file you downloaded and extract it using the tar command followed by the argument xzf followed by the file name. The argument xzf means eXtract the gZipped tar archive File. For example, for a 64-bit tar archive in your current directory, the command is:

tar xzf bitcoin-0.14.2-x86_64-linux-gnu.tar.gz

This will create the directory bitcoin-0.14.2 within your current working directory. We will install the contents of its bin subdirectory into the /usr/local/bindirectory using the the install command. The install command is part of the GNU coreutils available on nearly every Linux distribution, and the /usr/local/bindirectory is a standard location for self-installed executables (you may edit the commands below to use a different location).

If you use sudo to run commands as root, use the following command line:

sudo install -m 0755 -o root -g root -t /usr/local/bin bitcoin-0.14.2/bin/*

If you use su to run commands as root, use the following command line:

su -c 'install -m 0755 -o root -g root -t /usr/local/bin bitcoin-0.14.2/bin/*'

To continue, choose one of the following options

  1. To use Bitcoin Core Graphical User Interface (GUI), proceed to the Bitcoin Core GUI section below.
  2. To use the Bitcoin Core daemon (bitcoind), which is useful for programmers and advanced users, proceed to the Bitcoin Core Daemon section below.
  3. To use both the GUI and the daemon, read both the GUI instructions and the daemon instructions. Note that you can’t run both the GUI and the daemon at the same time using the same configuration directory.

Bitcoin Core GUI

In order to use Bitcoin Core GUI, you will need several libraries installed. All of them should be available in all major recently-released Linux distributions, but they may not be installed on your computer yet. To determine whether you’re missing any libraries, open a terminal (if you haven’t already) and run the command/usr/local/bin/bitcoin-qt to start Bitcoin Core GUI.

If all the required libraries are installed, Bitcoin Core will start. If a required library is missing, an error message similar to the following message will be displayed:

/usr/local/bin/bitcoin-qt: error while loading shared libraries: libQtGui.so.4: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Search your distribution’s package database for the missing file missing and install package containing that file. Then re-run /usr/local/bin/bitcoin-qt to see if it’s missing another file. Repeat until Bitcoin Core GUI starts.

You will be prompted to choose a directory to store the Bitcoin block chain and your wallet. Unless you have a separate partition or drive you want to use, click Ok to use the default.

Bitcoin-Qt Welcome

Bitcoin Core GUI will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time by closing it; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Bitcoin-Qt Initial Block Download

After download is complete, you may use Bitcoin Core as your wallet or you can just let it run to help support the Bitcoin network.

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core GUI to start at login. This only works in desktop environments that support the autostart specification, such as Gnome, KDE, and Unity.

While running Bitcoin Core GUI, open the Settings menu and choose Options. On the Main tab, click Start Bitcoin on system login. Click the Ok button to save the new settings.

Choosing to start Bitcoin Core at login

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core GUI should be automatically started in as an icon in the tray.

Bitcoin-Qt Tray Icon

If Bitcoin Core GUI does not automatically start, you may need to add it to an .xinit or .xsession file as described here.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Bitcoin Core Daemon

If you’re logged in as an administrative user with sudo access, you may log out. The steps in this section should be performed as the user you want to run Bitcoin Core. (This can be a locked account used only by Bitcoin Core.) If you changed users in a graphical interface, start a terminal.

Type the following command:

bitcoind -daemon

It will print a message that Bitcoin Core is starting. To interact with Bitcoin Core daemon, you will use the command bitcoin-cli (Bitcoin command line interface).

Note: it may take up to several minutes for Bitcoin Core to start, during which it will display the following message whenever you use bitcoin-cli:

error: {"code":-28,"message":"Verifying blocks..."}

After it starts, you may find the following commands useful for basic interaction with your node: getblockchaininfogetnetworkinfogetnettotals,getwalletinfostop, and help.

For example, to safely stop your node, run the following command:

bitcoin-cli stop

A complete list of commands is available in the Bitcoin.org developer reference.

When Bitcoin Core daemon first starts, it will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time using the stop command; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Optional: Start Your Node At Boot

Starting your node automatically each time your computer boots makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to start Bitcoin Core daemon from your crontab. To edit your crontab on most distributions, run the following command:

crontab -e

Scroll to the bottom of the file displayed and add the following line:

@reboot bitcoind -daemon

Save the file and exit; the updated crontab file will be installed for you. On most distributions, this will cause Bitcoin Core daemon to be automatically started each time your reboot your computer.

If you’re a expert system administrator and want to use an init script instead, see the init scripts directory in Bitcoin Core’s source tree.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Windows Instructions

Windows 10

*Instructions for Bitcoin Core 0.14.2 on Windows 10

Go to the Bitcoin Core download page and verify you have made a secure connection to the server.

Verify secure connection

Click the large blue Download Bitcoin Core button to download the Bitcoin Core installer to your desktop.

Optional: Verify the release signatures

If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key with the fingerprint:

01EA 5486 DE18 A882 D4C2  6845 90C8 019E 36C2 E964

Earlier releases were signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s regular key. That key’s fingerprint is:

71A3 B167 3540 5025 D447  E8F2 7481 0B01 2346 C9A6

Even earlier releases were signed by Gavin Andresen’s key. His primary key’s fingerprint is:

2664 6D99 CBAE C9B8 1982  EF60 29D9 EE6B 1FC7 30C1

You should verify these keys belong to their owners using the web of trust or other trustworthy means. Then use PGP to verify the signature on the release signatures file. Finally, use PGP or another utility to compute the SHA256 hash of the archive you downloaded, and ensure the computed hash matches the hash listed in the verified release signatures file.

After downloading the file to your desktop or your Downloads folder (C:\Users\<YOUR USER NAME>\Downloads), run it by double-clicking its icon. Windows will ask you to confirm that you want to run it. Click Yes and the Bitcoin installer will start. It’s a typical Windows installer, and it will guide you through the decisions you need to make about where to install Bitcoin Core.

Windows 10 installer start

To continue, choose one of the following options

  1. If you want to use the Bitcoin Core Graphical User Interface (GUI), proceed to the Bitcoin Core GUI section below.
  2. If you want to use the Bitcoin Core daemon (bitcoind), which is useful for programmers and advanced users, proceed to the Bitcoin Core Daemonsection below.
  3. To want to use both the GUI and the daemon, read both the GUI instructions and the daemon instructions. Note that you can’t run both the GUI and the daemon at the same time using the same configuration directory.

Bitcoin Core GUI

Press the Windows key (⊞ Win) and start typing “bitcoin”. When the Bitcoin Core icon appears (as shown below), click on it.

Starting Bitcoin Core

You will be prompted to choose a directory to store the Bitcoin block chain and your wallet. Unless you have a separate partition or drive you want to use, click Ok to use the default.

Bitcoin-Qt Welcome

Your firewall may block Bitcoin Core from making outbound connections. It’s safe to allow Bitcoin Core to use all networks. (Note: you will still need to configure inbound connections as described later in the Network Configuration section.)

Opening outgoing firewall for Bitcoin Core

Bitcoin Core GUI will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time by closing it; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Bitcoin-Qt Initial Block Download

After download is complete, you may use Bitcoin Core as your wallet or you can just let it run to help support the Bitcoin network.

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core GUI to start at login.

While running Bitcoin Core GUI, open the Settings menu and choose Options. On the Main tab, click Start Bitcoin on system login. Click the Ok button to save the new settings.

Choosing to start Bitcoin Core at login

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core GUI will be automatically started minimized in the task bar.

Warning: to prevent data corruption, do not force shutdown your computer from the Windows shutdown screen when you have Bitcoin Core running.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Bitcoin Core Daemon

To start Bitcoin Core daemon, first open a command window: press the Windows key (⊞ Win) and type “cmd”. Choose the option labeled “Command Prompt”.

Running cmd

If you installed Bitcoin Core into the default directory, type the following at the command prompt:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind -daemon

Bitcoin Core daemon should start and print a message that Bitcoin Core is starting.

To interact with Bitcoin Core daemon, you will use the command bitcoin-cli(Bitcoin command line interface). If you installed Bitcoin Core into the default location, type the following at the command prompt to see whether it works:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoin-cli getblockchaininfo

Note: it may take up to several minutes for Bitcoin Core to start, during which it will display the following message whenever you use bitcoin-cli:

error: {"code":-28,"message":"Verifying blocks..."}

After it starts, you may find the following commands useful for basic interaction with your node: getblockchaininfogetnetworkinfogetnettotals,getwalletinfostop, and help.

For example, to safely stop your node, run the following command:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoin-cli stop

A complete list of commands is available in the Bitcoin.org developer reference.

When Bitcoin Core daemon first starts, it will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time using the stop command; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Optional: Start Your Node At Boot

Starting your node automatically each time your computer boots makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to start Bitcoin Core daemon when you login to your computer.

Start File Explorer and go to,

C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\StartUp

Right-click on the File Explorer window and choose New → Text file. Name the file start_bitcoind.bat. Then right-click on it and choose Open in Notepad (or whatever editor you prefer). Copy and paste the following line into the file.

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind -daemon

(If you installed Bitcoin Core in a non-default directory, use that directory path instead.)

Save the file. The next time you login to your computer, Bitcoin Core daemon will be automatically started.

Warning: to prevent data corruption, do not force shutdown your computer from the Windows shutdown screen when you have Bitcoin Core running.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Windows 8.x

Instructions for Bitcoin Core 0.14.2 on Windows 8 and 8.1.

Go to the Bitcoin Core download page and verify you have made a secure connection to the server.

Verify secure connection

Click the large blue Download Bitcoin Core button to download the Bitcoin Core installer to your desktop.

Optional: Verify the release signatures

If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key with the fingerprint:

01EA 5486 DE18 A882 D4C2  6845 90C8 019E 36C2 E964

Earlier releases were signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s regular key. That key’s fingerprint is:

71A3 B167 3540 5025 D447  E8F2 7481 0B01 2346 C9A6

Even earlier releases were signed by Gavin Andresen’s key. His primary key’s fingerprint is:

2664 6D99 CBAE C9B8 1982  EF60 29D9 EE6B 1FC7 30C1

You should verify these keys belong to their owners using the web of trust or other trustworthy means. Then use PGP to verify the signature on the release signatures file. Finally, use PGP or another utility to compute the SHA256 hash of the archive you downloaded, and ensure the computed hash matches the hash listed in the verified release signatures file.

After downloading the file to your desktop or your Downloads folder (C:\Users\<YOUR USER NAME>\Downloads), run it by double-clicking its icon. Windows will ask you to confirm that you want to run it. Click Yes and the Bitcoin installer will start. It’s a typical Windows installer, and it will guide you through the decisions you need to make about where to install Bitcoin Core.

Windows 7 installer start

To continue, choose one of the following options

  1. If you want to use the Bitcoin Core Graphical User Interface (GUI), proceed to the Bitcoin Core GUI section below.
  2. If you want to use the Bitcoin Core daemon (bitcoind), which is useful for programmers and advanced users, proceed to the Bitcoin Core Daemonsection below.
  3. To want to use both the GUI and the daemon, read both the GUI instructions and the daemon instructions. Note that you can’t run both the GUI and the daemon at the same time using the same configuration directory.

Bitcoin Core GUI

Press the Windows key (⊞ Win) and start typing “bitcoin”. When the Bitcoin Core icon appears (as shown below), click on it.

Starting Bitcoin Core

You will be prompted to choose a directory to store the Bitcoin block chain and your wallet. Unless you have a separate partition or drive you want to use, click Ok to use the default.

Bitcoin-Qt Welcome

Your firewall may block Bitcoin Core from making outbound connections. It’s safe to allow Bitcoin Core to use all networks. (Note: you will still need to configure inbound connections as described later in the Network Configuration section.)

Opening outgoing firewall for Bitcoin Core

Bitcoin Core GUI will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time by closing it; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Bitcoin-Qt Initial Block Download

After download is complete, you may use Bitcoin Core as your wallet or you can just let it run to help support the Bitcoin network.

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core GUI to start at login.

While running Bitcoin Core GUI, open the Settings menu and choose Options. On the Main tab, click Start Bitcoin on system login. Click the Ok button to save the new settings.

Choosing to start Bitcoin Core at login

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core GUI will be automatically started minimized in the task bar.

Warning: to prevent data corruption, do not force shutdown your computer from the Windows shutdown screen when you have Bitcoin Core running.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Bitcoin Core Daemon

To start Bitcoin Core daemon, first open a command window: press the Windows key (⊞ Win) and type “cmd”. Choose the option labeled “Command Prompt”.

Running cmd

If you installed Bitcoin Core into the default directory, type the following at the command prompt:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind -daemon

Bitcoin Core daemon should start and print a message that Bitcoin Core is starting.

To interact with Bitcoin Core daemon, you will use the command bitcoin-cli(Bitcoin command line interface). If you installed Bitcoin Core into the default location, type the following at the command prompt to see whether it works:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoin-cli getblockchaininfo

Note: it may take up to several minutes for Bitcoin Core to start, during which it will display the following message whenever you use bitcoin-cli:

error: {"code":-28,"message":"Verifying blocks..."}

After it starts, you may find the following commands useful for basic interaction with your node: getblockchaininfogetnetworkinfogetnettotals,getwalletinfostop, and help.

For example, to safely stop your node, run the following command:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoin-cli stop

A complete list of commands is available in the Bitcoin.org developer reference.

When Bitcoin Core daemon first starts, it will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time using the stop command; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Optional: Start Your Node At Boot

Starting your node automatically each time your computer boots makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to start Bitcoin Core daemon when you login to your computer.

Start File Explorer and go to,

C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\StartUp

Right-click on the File Explorer window and choose New → Text file. Name the file start_bitcoind.bat. Then right-click on it and choose Open in Notepad (or whatever editor you prefer). Copy and paste the following line into the file.

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind -daemon

(If you installed Bitcoin Core in a non-default directory, use that directory path instead.)

Save the file. The next time you login to your computer, Bitcoin Core daemon will be automatically started.

Warning: to prevent data corruption, do not force shutdown your computer from the Windows shutdown screen when you have Bitcoin Core running.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Windows 7

*Instructions for Bitcoin Core 0.14.2

Go to the Bitcoin Core download page and verify you have made a secure connection to the server.

Verify secure connection

Click the large blue Download Bitcoin Core button to download the Bitcoin Core installer to your desktop.

Optional: Verify the release signatures

If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key with the fingerprint:

01EA 5486 DE18 A882 D4C2  6845 90C8 019E 36C2 E964

Earlier releases were signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s regular key. That key’s fingerprint is:

71A3 B167 3540 5025 D447  E8F2 7481 0B01 2346 C9A6

Even earlier releases were signed by Gavin Andresen’s key. His primary key’s fingerprint is:

2664 6D99 CBAE C9B8 1982  EF60 29D9 EE6B 1FC7 30C1

You should verify these keys belong to their owners using the web of trust or other trustworthy means. Then use PGP to verify the signature on the release signatures file. Finally, use PGP or another utility to compute the SHA256 hash of the archive you downloaded, and ensure the computed hash matches the hash listed in the verified release signatures file.

After downloading the file to your desktop or your Downloads folder (C:\Users\<YOUR USER NAME>\Downloads), run it by double-clicking its icon. Windows will ask you to confirm that you want to run it. Click Yes and the Bitcoin installer will start. It’s a typical Windows installer, and it will guide you through the decisions you need to make about where to install Bitcoin Core.

Windows 7 installer start

To continue, choose one of the following options

  1. If you want to use the Bitcoin Core Graphical User Interface (GUI), proceed to the Bitcoin Core GUI section below.
  2. If you want to use the Bitcoin Core daemon (bitcoind), which is useful for programmers and advanced users, proceed to the Bitcoin Core Daemonsection below.
  3. To want to use both the GUI and the daemon, read both the GUI instructions and the daemon instructions. Note that you can’t run both the GUI and the daemon at the same time using the same configuration directory.

Bitcoin Core GUI

Open the Start menu, type bitcoin into the search box, and click the Bitcoin Coreicon.

Start Bitcoin Core

You will be prompted to choose a directory to store the Bitcoin block chain and your wallet. Unless you have a separate partition or drive you want to use, click Ok to use the default.

Bitcoin-Qt Welcome

Your firewall may block Bitcoin Core from making outbound connections. It’s safe to allow Bitcoin Core to use all networks. (Note: you will still need to configure inbound connections as described later in the Network Configuration section.)

Opening outgoing firewall for Bitcoin Core

Bitcoin Core GUI will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time by closing it; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Bitcoin-Qt Initial Block Download

After download is complete, you may use Bitcoin Core as your wallet or you can just let it run to help support the Bitcoin network.

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core GUI to start at login.

While running Bitcoin Core GUI, open the Settings menu and choose Options. On the Main tab, click Start Bitcoin on system login. Click the Ok button to save the new settings.

Choosing to start Bitcoin Core at login

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core GUI will be automatically started minimized in the task bar.

Warning: to prevent data corruption, do not force shutdown your computer from the Windows shutdown screen when you have Bitcoin Core running.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Bitcoin Core Daemon

To start Bitcoin Core daemon, first open a command window: press the Windows key (⊞ Win) and type “cmd”. Choose the program named “cmd.exe”

Running cmd

If you installed the Bitcoin Core into the default directory, type the following at the command prompt :

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind -daemon

Bitcoin Core daemon should start.

You can now try using Bitcoin Cli Utility.

To interact with Bitcoin Core daemon, you will use the command bitcoin-cli(Bitcoin command line interface). If you installed Bitcoin Core into the default location, type the following at the command prompt to see whether it works:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoin-cli getblockchaininfo

Note: it may take up to several minutes for Bitcoin Core to start, during which it will display the following message whenever you use bitcoin-cli:

error: {"code":-28,"message":"Verifying blocks..."}

After it starts, you may find the following commands useful for basic interaction with your node: getblockchaininfogetnetworkinfogetnettotals,getwalletinfostop, and help.

For example, to safely stop your node, run the following command:

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoin-cli stop

A complete list of commands is available in the Bitcoin.org developer reference.

When Bitcoin Core daemon first starts, it will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time using the stop command; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

When Bitcoin Core daemon first starts, it will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time using the stop command; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Optional: Start Your Node At Boot

Starting your node automatically each time your computer boots makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to start Bitcoin Core daemon when you login to your computer.

Start File Explorer and go to,

C:\Users\Example\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\StartUp

You can also access this folder by executing the following command after reaching the Execute... prompt :

shell:startup

Right-click on the File Explorer window and choose New → Text file. Name the file start_bitcoind.bat. Then right-click on it and choose Open in Notepad (or whatever editor you prefer). Copy and paste the following line into the file.

C:\Program Files\Bitcoin\daemon\bitcoind -daemon

(If you installed Bitcoin Core in a non-default directory, use that directory path instead.)

Save the file. The next time you login to your computer, Bitcoin Core daemon will be automatically started.

Warning: to prevent data corruption, do not force shutdown your computer from the Windows shutdown screen when you have Bitcoin Core running.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Mac OS X Instructions

Mac OS X Yosemite 10.10.x

Instructions for Bitcoin Core 0.14.2 on Mac OS X Yosemite

Go to the Bitcoin Core download page and verify you have made a secure connection to the server.

Verify secure connection

Click the large blue Download Bitcoin Core button to download the Bitcoin Core installer to your Downloads folder.

Optional: Verify the release signatures

If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key with the fingerprint:

01EA 5486 DE18 A882 D4C2  6845 90C8 019E 36C2 E964

Earlier releases were signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s regular key. That key’s fingerprint is:

71A3 B167 3540 5025 D447  E8F2 7481 0B01 2346 C9A6

Even earlier releases were signed by Gavin Andresen’s key. His primary key’s fingerprint is:

2664 6D99 CBAE C9B8 1982  EF60 29D9 EE6B 1FC7 30C1

You should verify these keys belong to their owners using the web of trust or other trustworthy means. Then use PGP to verify the signature on the release signatures file. Finally, use PGP or another utility to compute the SHA256 hash of the archive you downloaded, and ensure the computed hash matches the hash listed in the verified release signatures file.

After downloading the file to your Downloads folder (/Users/<YOUR USER NAME>/Downloads), run it by double-clicking its icon. OS X will open a Finder window for you to drag Bitcoin Core to your Applications folder.

Window to install

Bitcoin Core GUI

The first time running Bitcoin Core, Max OS X will ask you to confirm that you want to run it:

Mac OS X File Security Dialog

You will be prompted to choose a directory to store the Bitcoin block chain and your wallet. Unless you have a separate partition or drive you want to use, click Ok to use the default.

Bitcoin Core Welcome

Bitcoin Core GUI will begin to download the block chain. This step will take at least several days, and it may take much more time on a slow Internet connection or with a slow computer. During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. You can stop Bitcoin Core at any time by closing it; it will resume from the point where it stopped the next time you start it.

Bitcoin Core Initial Block Download

After download is complete, you may use Bitcoin Core as your wallet or you can just let it run to help support the Bitcoin network.

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core GUI to start at login.

While running Bitcoin Core GUI, open the Bitcoin Core menu and choose Preferences. On the Main tab, click Start Bitcoin on system login. Click the Ok button to save the new settings.

Choosing to start Bitcoin Core at login

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core GUI will be automatically started minimized in the task bar.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Bitcoin Core Daemon

The Bitcoin Core daemon (bitcoind) is not included in the .dmg file you may have downloaded to install Bitcoin-QT. Bitcoind, along with its support binaries, is instead included in the OS X .tar.gz file listed on the official Bitcoin Core download page. To download this file using Terminal, execute the following command:

curl -O https://bitcoin.org/bin/bitcoin-core-0.15.1/bitcoin-0.15.1-osx64.tar.gz

Optional: Verify the release signatures

If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key with the fingerprint:

01EA 5486 DE18 A882 D4C2  6845 90C8 019E 36C2 E964

Earlier releases were signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s regular key. That key’s fingerprint is:

71A3 B167 3540 5025 D447  E8F2 7481 0B01 2346 C9A6

Even earlier releases were signed by Gavin Andresen’s key. His primary key’s fingerprint is:

2664 6D99 CBAE C9B8 1982  EF60 29D9 EE6B 1FC7 30C1

You should verify these keys belong to their owners using the web of trust or other trustworthy means. Then use PGP to verify the signature on the release signatures file. Finally, use PGP or another utility to compute the SHA256 hash of the archive you downloaded, and ensure the computed hash matches the hash listed in the verified release signatures file.

Extract bitcoind and its support binaries from the archive we just downloaded by running this command in Terminal:

tar -zxf bitcoin-0.15.1-osx64.tar.gz

Now we’ll move the executables into your default path to make running and stopping bitcoind easier. To move the executables, run these commands (note that we have to use sudo to perform these commands since we are modifying directories owned by root):

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/bin
sudo cp bitcoin-0.15.1/bin/bitcoin* /usr/local/bin/.

To clean up the directory we’ve been working in, run:

rm -rf bitcoin-0.15.1*

You should now be able to start up your full node by running bitcoind -daemon in any Terminal window. If you need to stop bitcoind for any reason, the command is bitcoin-cli stop

Optional: Start Your Node At Login

Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. The easiest way to do this is to tell Bitcoin Core Daemon to start at login. In OS X, the way to start background programs at login is using a Launch Agent. Here is how to install a Launch Agent for Bitcoin Core daemon on your machine:

mkdir ~/Library/LaunchAgents
curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/master/contrib/init/org.bitcoin.bitcoind.plist > ~/Library/LaunchAgents/org.bitcoin.bitcoind.plist

The next time you login to your desktop, Bitcoin Core daemon will be automatically started.

You have now completed installing Bitcoin Core. If you have any questions, please ask in one of Bitcoin’s many communities, such as Bitcoin StackExchangeBitcoinTalk technical support, or the #bitcoin IRC chatroom on Freenode.

To support the Bitcoin network, you also need to allow incoming connections. Please read the Network Configuration section for details.

Upgrading Bitcoin Core

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux).

The blockchain and wallet files in the data directory are compatible between versions so there is no requirement to make any changes to the data directory when upgrading. Occasionally the format of those files changes, but the new Bitcoin Core version will include code that automatically upgrades the files to the new format so no manual intervention is required.

Sometimes upgrade of the blockchain data files from very old versions to the new versions is not supported. In those cases it may be necessary to redownload the blockchain. Check the release notes of the new version if you are planning to upgrade from a very old version.

Sometimes downgrade is not possible because of changes to the data files. Again, check the release notes for the new version if you are planning to downgrade.

Network Configuration

If you want to support the Bitcoin network, you must allow inbound connections.

When Bitcoin Core starts, it establishes 8 outbound connections to other full nodes so it can download the latest blocks and transactions. If you just want to use your full node as a wallet, you don’t need more than these 8 connections—but if you want to support lightweight clients and other full nodes on the network, you must allow inbound connections.

Servers connected directly to the Internet usually don’t require any special configuration. You can use the testing instructions below to confirm your server-based node accepts inbound connections.

Home connections are usually filtered by a router or modem. Bitcoin Core will request your router automatically configure itself to allow inbound connections to Bitcoin’s port, port 8333. Unfortunately many routers don’t allow automatic configuration, so you must manually configure your router. You may also need to configure your firewall to allow inbound connections to port 8333. Please see the following subsections for details.

Testing Connections

The BitNodes project provides an online tool to let you test whether your node accepts inbound connections. To use it, start Bitcoin Core (either the GUI or the daemon), wait 10 minutes, and then visit the Bitnodes page. The tool will attempt to guess your IP address—if the address is wrong (or blank), you will need to enter your address manually.

Bitnodes Tool

After you press Check Node, the tool will inform you whether your port is open (green box) or not open (red box). If you get the green box, you don’t need to do anything—you accept inbound connections. If you get the red box, please read the enabling connections subsection.

For confirmation that you accept inbound connections, you can use Bitcoin Core. Bitcoin Core can’t tell you directly whether you allow inbound connections, but it can tell you whether or not you currently have any inbound connections. If your node has been online for at least 30 minutes, it should normally have inbound connections. If want to check your peer info using Bitcoin Core, choose the appropriate instructions below:

GUI Peer Info

In the bottom right corner of the Bitcoin Core GUI are several icons. If you hover over the signal strength icon, it will tell you how many connections you have. The icon won’t turn green until you have more than 8 active connections, which only happens if inbound connections are allowed.

Active connections

For confirmation, you can go to the Help menu, choose Debug Window, and open the Information tab. In the Network section, it will tell you exactly how many inbound connections you have. If the number is greater than zero, then inbound connections are allowed.

Debug window with inbound connections

If you don’t have inbound connections, please read the instructions for enabling inbound connections.

Daemon Peer Info

The getconnectioncount command will tell you how many connections you have. If you have more than 8 connections, inbound connections are allowed. For example:

$ bitcoin-cli getconnectioncount
52

For confirmation, you can use the getpeerinfo command to get information about all of your peers. Each peer’s details will include an inbound field set to true if the connection is inbound. If you have any inbound connections, then inbound connections are allowed.

If you don’t have inbound connections, please read instructions for enabling inbound connections.

Enabling Connections

If Bitcoin Core can’t automatically configure your router to open port 8333, you will need to manually configure your router. We’ve tried to make the following instructions generic enough to cover most router models; if you need specific help with your router, please ask for help on a tech support site such as SuperUser.

Enabling inbound connections requires two steps, plus an extra third step for firewall users:

  1. Giving your computer a static (unchanging) internal IP address by configuring the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) on your router.
  2. Forwarding inbound connections from the Internet through your router to your computer where Bitcoin Core can process them.
  3. Configuring your firewall to allow inbound connections. This step mainly applies to Windows users, as Mac OS X and most Linuxes do not enable a firewall by default.

Configuring DHCP

In order for your router to direct incoming port 8333 connections to your computer, it needs to know your computer’s internal IP address. However, routers usually give computers dynamic IP addresses that change frequently, so we need to ensure your router always gives your computer the same internal IP address.

Start by logging into your router’s administration interface. Most routers can be configured using one of the following URLs, so keep clicking links until you find one that works. If none work, consult your router’s manual.

Upon connecting, you will probably be prompted for a username and password. If you configured a password, enter it now. If not, the Router Passwords site provides a database of known default username and password pairs.

After logging in, you want to search your router’s menus for options related to DHCP, the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. These options may also be called Address Reservation. For example, the router page shown below calls the option we need “DHCP Reservation”:

DHCP reservation button

In the reservation configuration, some routers will display a list of computers and devices currently connected to your network, and then let you select a device to make its current IP address permanent:

Easy DHCP reservation

If that’s the case, find the computer running Bitcoin Core in the list, select it, and add it to the list of reserved addresses. Make a note of its current IP address—we’ll use the address in the next section.

Other routers require a more manual configuration. For these routers, you will need to look up the fixed address (MAC address) for your computer’s network card and add it to the list. This operation differs by operating system:

  • Windows 7 & 8: Press Win-R (Windows key plus the R key) to open the Run dialog. Type cmd to open the console. Type ipconfig /all and find the result that best matches your connection—usually a wireless connection. Look for a line that starts with “Physical Address” and contains a value like this:
      Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 01-23-45-67-89-AB
    

    Replace all the dashes with colons, so the address looks like this: 01:23:45:67:89:AB. Use that address in the instructions below.

  • Linux: open a terminal and type ifconfig. Find the result that best matches your connection—a result starting with wlan indicates a wireless connection. Find the field that starts with HWaddr and copy the immediately following field that looks like 01:23:45:67:89:ab. Use that value in the instructions below.
  • Mac OS X: open a terminal and type ifconfig. Find the result that best matches your connection—a result starting with en1 usually indicates a wireless connection. Find the field that starts with ether: and copy the immediately following field that looks like 01:23:45:67:89:ab. Use that value in the instructions below.

Once you have the MAC address, you can fill it into to your router’s manual DHCP assignment table, as illustrated below. Also choose an IP address and make a note of it for the instructions in the next subsection. After entering this information, click the Add or Save button.

Manual DHCP reservation

Then reboot your computer to ensure it gets assigned the address you selected and proceed to the Port Forwarding instructions below.

Port Forwarding

For this step, you need to know the local IP address of the computer running Bitcoin Core. You should have this information from configuring the DHCP assignment table in the subsection above.

Login to your router using the same steps described near the top of the DHCP subsection. Look for an option called Port Forwarding, Port Assignment, or anything with “Port” in its name. On the some routers, this option is buried in an Applications & Gaming menu.

The port forwarding settings should allow you to map an external port on your router to the “internal port” of a device on your network as shown in the screenshot below.

Port forwarding

Both the external port and the internal port should be 8333 for Bitcoin. (You may also want to map port 18333 for Bitcoin’s testnet, although this guide does not cover using testnet.) Make sure the IP address you enter is the same one you configured in the previous subsection.

After filling in the details for the mapping, save the entry. You should not need to restart anything. Start Bitcoin Core (if you haven’t already) and follow the Testing Connections instructions to test your connection.

If you still can’t connect and you use a firewall, you probably need to change your firewall settings. See the Firewall section below.

If something else went wrong, it’s probably a problem with your router configuration. Re-read the instructions above to see if you missed anything, search the web for help with “port forwarding”, and ask for help on sites like SuperUser.

We can’t provide direct support, but if you see a way to improve these instructions, please open an issue.

Firewall Configuration

Firewalls block inbound connections. To use Bitcoin, you need to configure your computer’s firewall to allow connections to port 8333. This is usually as easy as starting your firewall configuration software and defining a new rule to allow inbound connections to port 8333. For additional information for Windows, see the links below:

Mac OS X comes with its firewall disabled by default, but if you have enabled it, see the section Allowing Specific Applications from the official Apple guide.

Ubuntu also comes with its firewall disabled by default, but if you have enabled it, see the Ubuntu wiki page for information about adding port forwarding rules.

Once you have allowed inbound connections to port 8333, start Bitcoin Core (if you haven’t already) and follow the Testing Connections instructions to test your connection.

If something else went wrong re-read the DHCP, port forwarding, and firewall instructions above to see if you missed anything, search the web for help with “port forwarding” and “opening firewall ports”, and ask for help on sites like SuperUser.

We can’t provide direct support, but if you see a way to improve these instructions, please open an issue.

Configuration Tuning

This section contains advice about how to change your Bitcoin Core configuration to adapt it to your needs.

There are two ways to change your configuration. The first is to start Bitcoin Core with the options you want. For example, if you want to limit it to using one CPU core for signature verification, you can start Bitcoin Core like this:

## Bitcoin Core daemon
bitcoind -par=1 -daemon

## Bitcoin Core GUI
bitcoin-qt -par=1

Once you’ve decided you like an option, you can add it to the Bitcoin Core configuration file. You can find that file in the following directories:

  • Windows: %APPDATA%\Bitcoin\
  • OSX: $HOME/Library/Application Support/Bitcoin/
  • Linux: $HOME/.bitcoin/

To add an option to the configuration file, just remove its leading dash. You may also need to remove any quotation marks you used in your shell. For example, the -paroption seen above would look like this in the configuration file:

par=1

A user-friendly configuration file generator is available here. If you have any questions about configuring Bitcoin Core, please stop by one of our forums or live chatrooms.

Reduce Storage

It is possible to configure your node to to run in pruned mode in order to reduce storage requirements. This can reduce the disk usage from over 145GB to around 5GB.

Running a node in pruned mode is incompatible with -txindex and -rescan. It also disables the RPC importwallet. Two RPCs that are available and potentially helpful, however, are importprunedfunds and removeprunedfunds.

To enable block pruning set prune=N on the command line or in bitcoin.conf, where N is the number of MiB to allot for raw block and undo data.

A value of 0 disables pruning. The minimal value above 0 is 550. Your wallet is as secure with high values as it is with low ones. Higher values merely ensure that your node will not shut down upon blockchain reorganizations of more than 2 days – which are unlikely to happen in practice. In future releases, a higher value may also help the network as a whole because stored blocks could be served to other nodes.

Reduce Traffic

Some node operators need to deal with bandwidth caps imposed by their ISPs.

By default, bitcoin-core allows up to 125 connections to different peers, 8 of which are outbound. You can therefore, have at most 117 inbound connections.

The default settings can result in relatively significant traffic consumption.

Ways to reduce traffic:

Maximum Upload Targets

-maxuploadtarget=<MiB per day>

A major component of the traffic is caused by serving historic blocks to other nodes during the initial blocks download phase (syncing up a new node). This option can be specified in MiB per day and is turned off by default. This is not a hard limit; only a threshold to minimize the outbound traffic. When the limit is about to be reached, the uploaded data is cut by no longer serving historic blocks (blocks older than one week). Keep in mind that new nodes require other nodes that are willing to serve historic blocks. The recommended minimum is 144 blocks per day (max. 144MB per day)

Disable listening

-listen=0

Disabling listening will result in fewer nodes connected (remember the maximum of 8 outbound peers). Fewer nodes will result in less traffic usage as you are relaying blocks and transactions to fewer nodes.

Reduce maximum connections

-maxconnections=<num>

Reducing the maximum connected nodes to a minimum could be desirable if traffic limits are tiny. Keep in mind that bitcoin’s trustless model works best if you are connected to a handful of nodes.

Blocks-only mode

-blocksonly

Causes your node to stop requesting and relaying transactions unless they are part of a block and also disables listening as described above.

This reduces your node’s bandwidth to the absolute minimum necessary to stay synchronized with the network, about 150 megabytes incoming data per day and about 1 megabyte of outgoing data per day, but it does mean that your node won’t see incoming transactions until they’ve received at least one confirmation.

You will still be able to send transactions from the built-in wallet or from peers you’ve whitelisted using the -whitelist parameter.

US Gov is offering bounties on pump-and-dump groups

Customer Advisory: Beware Virtual Currency Pump-and-Dump Schemes
Customer Advisory: Beware Virtual Currency Pump-and-Dump Schemes
Customer Advisory: Beware Virtual Currency Pump-and-Dump
Schemes

“Blow the whistle on pump-and-dump schemers

Virtual currency and digital token pump-and-dump schemes continue because they are mostly anonymous. If you have original information that leads to a successful enforcement action that leads to monetary sanctions of $1 million or more, you could be eligible for a monetary award of between 10 percent and 30 percent.”

The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is advising customers to avoid pump-and-dump schemes that can occur in thinly traded or new “alternative” virtual currencies and digital coins or tokens. Customers should not purchase virtual currencies, digital coins, or tokens based on social media tips or sudden price spikes. Thoroughly research virtual currencies, digital coins, tokens, and the companies or entities behind them in order to separate hype from facts.

Pump-and-dump schemes have been around long before virtual currencies and digital tokens. Historically, they were the domain of “boiler room” frauds that aggressively peddled penny stocks by falsely promising the companies were on the verge of major breakthroughs, releasing groundbreaking products, or merging with blue chip competitors. As demand in the thinly traded companies grew, the share prices would rise. When the prices reached a certain point, the boiler rooms would dump their remaining shares on the open market, the prices would crash, and investors were left holding nearly worthless stock.

Old Scam, New Technology The same basic fraud is now occurring using little known virtual currencies and digital coins or tokens, but thanks to mobile messaging apps or Internet message boards, today’s pump-anddumpers don’t need a boiler room, they organize anonymously and hype the currencies and tokens using social media. Some of these pump-and-dump groups and chat rooms contain thousands of members. The members subscribe to the group and follow the conversations as they indicate when the next pump-and-dump will occur. On the day of the scam, the organizer counts down the buy signal:

“15 mins left before the pump! Get ready to buy” “5 minutes till pump, next message will be the coin! Tweet about us and send everyone the link to telegram (sic) for outsiders to see what we are pumping so they can get in on the action too!! lets (sic) take it to the MOON!!!!!”

This article was prepared by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission’s Office of Customer Education and Outreach. The article is provided for general informational purposes only and does not provide legal or investment advice to any individual or entity. Please consult with your own legal adviser before taking any action based on this information.

quadrigacx
QuadrigaCX

The next post announces the coin that will be bid up, followed by the exchange platform where the pump will take place.

Some pump and dumps use false news reports, typically about a famous high-tech business leader or investor who plans to pour millions of dollars into a small, lesser known virtual currency or coin. Other fake news stories have featured major retailers, banks, or credit card companies, announcing plans to partner with one virtual currency or another. Links to the phony stories are also accompanied by posts that create false urgency and tell readers to buy now.

Once the pump begins, it can be over in a matter of minutes. In the example above, the buy and sell cycle was over in less than eight minutes. Commonly, it is the people pulling the strings who get out first making the most in the scheme, and leaving everyone else scrambling to sell before losing their investment.

These pump and dumps occur in the largely unregulated cash market for virtual currencies and digital tokens, and typically on platforms that offer a wide array of coin pairings for traders to buy and sell. While the scams have been around as long as the virtual currency markets themselves, the number of new virtual currency and digital coin traders has grown substantially, increasing the number of potential victims or unwitting perpetrators.

The CFTC has received complaints from customers who have lost money to pump-and-dump schemes. While its regulatory oversight authority over commodity cash markets is limited, the CFTC maintains general anti-fraud and manipulation enforcement authority over virtual currency cash markets as a commodity in interstate commerce. In addition, some of the coin exchanges are taking measures to identify and block accounts that participate in pump-and-dump activities.

Protect Yourself The best protection for customers is to only purchase alternative virtual currencies, digital coins, or tokens that have been thoroughly researched. Remember:

 Don’t purchase digital coins or tokens because of a single tip, especially if it comes over social media.

 Don’t believe ads or websites that promise quick wealth by investing in certain digital coins or tokens.

 Do not participate in pump-and-dump trades; market manipulation is against the law and many participants end up losing money.

 There is no such thing as a guaranteed investment or trading strategy. If someone tells you there is no risk of losing money, do not invest.

If you believe you may have been the victim of fraud, or to report suspicious activity, contact us at 866.366.2382 or visit CFTC.gov/TipOrComplaint.

You can read the full Commodity Futures Trading Commission’s article herecustomeradvisory_pumpdump0218

Original Source: http://www.cftc.gov/idc/groups/public/@customerprotection/documents/file/customeradvisory_pumpdump0218.pdf

 

Missed out on #Monero #Verge #Zcash? Get CREDITS Anon Cryptocurrency https://goo.gl/BF7uFJ
Missed out on #Monero #Verge #Zcash? Get CREDITS Anon Cryptocurrency https://goo.gl/BF7uFJ

 

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After All This, Ripple (XRP) Can Go Only One Way Up | Crypto Gazette

XRP
XRP

Source: After All This, Ripple (XRP) Can Go Only One Way Up | Crypto Gazette

 

It’s been a slightly eventful week for some of the major cryptocurrencies, with the prices gaining minimally to settle nerves around the crypto sphere. Investors are taking note of the green as the fears, uncertainty, and doubts concerning the cryptocurrency mini-crash dissipate. Of the top five coins, none showed resilience in the last two months as Ripple (XRP).

Headlines this week have all been about how Ripple coin is going to be the defining cryptocurrency in 2018. Some are calling it the “dark horse” of 2018. If you are an XRP holder then you have heard of mega-deals between Ripple (XRP) and companies in China, Japan, and UAE.

But the biggest news this week came from Saudi Arabia. XRP is set to surge as Ripple secured a deal worth $4 billion with Saudi Arabia. I’ll give you more on this and the other deals shortly.

Let me put Ripple deals into perspective and show you why these mega deals are happening. The goal is to show you why they are likely just the beginning of a bigger impact of Ripplenet around the world.

Interest in Ripple (XRP) a result of its use cases

A coin is as good as its use cases. And that’s where XRP and many of its features come in. simply put; the creators of Ripple have given the world a platform that brings solutions to real-world issues. It seeks to decentralize international payments systems with its four fundamental characteristics- liquidity, fastest international transactions (just 3 seconds and you are done), the scalable blockchain, and more importantly, stability.

What do all these mean for Ripple?

One thing comes to mind– Ripple’s value is not all about its price on the market. No, that would be too minimalistic. Ripple is a brand now, commanding interest from all over the world. Like I mentioned above, doing business within major financial markets around the world is an indelible marker that COIN is now being appreciated for what it really is.

Ripple seeks to partner with financial institutions to promote the concept of the Internet of value. The intention is to make cross-border payments swifter and fast; cheaper for all, and importantly, be a reliable mode of transferring money from fiat to cryptocurrency and vice versa. At the center of this support is the Interledger protocol that will connect financial institutions and blockchains to make value transfer easy and instant.

$4 billion Ripple deal with Saudi Central bank a first for any blockchain

 

The deal that sees Ripple become the first cryptocurrency to sign a deal with a Central Bank is worth $4 billion. The deal was signed between Ripple and Saudi Arabia Monetary Authority (SAMA). It gives the coin the go-ahead to develop blockchain-based software to be used by Saudi banks in settling payments.

The agreement puts Ripple’s xCurrent software at the disposal of the country’s banks. They will use the software to facilitate instant cross-border payments. Though it is just at the pilot stage, this deal gives it a massive growth opportunity. Already XRP experienced a surge in the announcement of that agreement. XRP gained value from $1.03 to close at $ 1.14, a positive percentage increase on Ripple’s market cap that now stands at over $44 billion. That’s $4 billion more, a 10% rise on the day.

Investors are taking notice, but this is hardly the first Ripple deal. And if all goes well, not the last one either.

RippleNet nets China’s LianLian International-

Ripple had earlier in February signed another deal with LianLian International– a major Chinese e-commerce company. The deal will see the company use Ripple’s xCurrent to facilitate cheaper online payments between its 150 million users and major online shops like Amazon, eBay, and Ali Express.  This deal will see the Hong Kong-based company link users in the U.S, Europe, and China with the payment system. What could this deal bring to XRP’s dinner table? More exposure to the world, I’d say. That’s real growth potential for XRP and RippleNet.

XRP gets the nod for listing onto Japan’s SBI virtual Currencies

 

XRP is set to be the first and only Listing on SBI Virtual Currencies when the biggest financial services company in Japan launches. The company will partner Ripple on its xRapid ecosystem to enable financial institutions to access liquidity that’s crucial in cross-border payments. The system will allow SBI to link institutions in Japan to others around the world. According to Ripple’s Patrick Griffin, a senior figure in the Business Development department, partnering SBI Virtual Currencies will play a major role in helping XRP achieve its objective of having money transfers be faster and cheaper.

Ripple (XRP) is silently making its platform visible and with mainstream financial players like MoneyGram and Western Union on board, there is only one way I see the value of XRP going: up. We cannot rule out price fluctuations in the crypto industry, but I am betting on one thing about Ripple (XRP) it will prove doubters wrong if it hasn’t done so already.

Deadpool Explains Monero

Deadpool Explains Monero | Altcoin of the Week

Deadpool Explains Monero | Altcoin of the Week

Deadpool Explains Monero | Altcoin of the Week

Monero, the Deadpool of Cryptocurrencies. It is private, efficient and way cooler than a cryptocurrency ought to be. Privacy coins are on the rise and Monero is king of the lot.

Atari Announces Its Own Cryptocurrency Called ‘Atari Token’ | Blockchain

Video game company Atari has announced plans to launch their own cryptocurrency called “Atari Token.” MAKE SURE TO FOLLOW US ON TWITTER: @BLCKCHAINDAILY “Our aim is to take strategic position…

Source: Atari Announces Its Own Cryptocurrency Called ‘Atari Token’ | Blockchain Daily

 

Video game company Atari has announced plans to launch their own cryptocurrency called “Atari Token.”

MAKE SURE TO FOLLOW US ON TWITTER: @BLCKCHAINDAILY

Frederic Chesnais
Frederic Chesnais

“OUR AIM IS TO TAKE STRATEGIC POSITIONS WITH A LIMITED CASH RISK, IN ORDER TO BEST CREATE VALUE WITH THE ASSETS AND THE ATARI BRAND,” SAID FREDERIC CHESNAIS, ATARI CHAIRMAN AND CEO.

The company recently obtained a 15 percent stake in Infinity Networks, Ltd.

The partnership will help develop the underpinning blockchain behind Atari Token.

Atari plans to develop a second token, which will be utilized in concurrence with their plans to create an online casino.

“TO BROADEN THE APPEAL OF THESE NEW CASINOS, AND ONCE THE ATARI TOKEN AVAILABLE, ATARI HAS THE PROJECT TO LAUNCH PONG TOKEN, A SECOND TOKEN DEDICATED TO CRYPTO-CASINOS AND USABLE ON THESE GAMING SITES. THE DETAILS OF THIS LAUNCH OF CRYPTO-CASINOS WILL BE ANNOUNCED SOON,” ATARI SAID IN A STATEMENT.

Atari stock, which is listed on NASDAQ, saw a significant increase in price, from just €0.45 to €0.82, at press time.

LoopX Disappears After Raising $4.5 Million in its Initial Coin Offering | BTCMANAGER

Source: LoopX Disappears After Raising $4.5 Million in its Initial Coin Offering | BTCMANAGER

ICO exit scams have become quite common these days. While authorities are doing the best they can to shut down some of these pump and dump schemes before they run away by themselves, some of these scam projects still succeed in disappearing with their investors’ funds. The latest ICO scam is LoopX ICO, which made a total of $4.5 million.

LoopX on the Run

Cryptocurrency startup, LoopX, has suddenly closed shop and vanished into space after raising millions of dollars from investors.

The LoopX project promised its investors huge returns with its one of a kind trading algorithm. At present, all its social media accounts have been wiped out except for its bitcointalk account which was last active in December 2017.

In a cached version of its website, the criminals stated that investors donated a total of 276 bitcoin and 2,446 ethereum altcoin. The LoopX ICO had five rounds, and each of those series met its fundraising targets.

False Hope

A thread posted on its bitcointalk account reads:

“After developing over months and testing successfully with great profits, we can release now with great profits, we can release now with great algorithm. This software will give us all the opportunity to make more money online than we could ever do in real life.”

The LoopX team never ceased giving its participants a false hope. They kept all communication lines active until they vanished, “Our software handles over 10,000 trades per second and calculates over 100 currencies at a time. Always looking for those opportunities to make profits bigger than 10 percent, which will be paid out to our members on a weekly basis.”

In its roadmap, LoopX had stated that its lending platform would go live in February 2018 and this statement made investors confident in the platform unknowing to them that the owners were planning their exit.

While initial coin offerings remain a viable fundraising method by startups and also an avenue for investors to make good money in a relatively short time, there have been numerous cases of scam ICOs in recent times.

Projects like BitConnectDavorCoinREcoin, and Bitstrade have all been shut down by regulatory authorities for illegal activities, while others like Confido, Prodeum, LoopX and many others have pulled exit scams.

The blockchain and cryptocurrency ecosystem is here to stay and will continue to surge in value. Therefore until ICOs get fully regulated all over the world, scam ICO projects will still be around.

The Best Bet

Never feel lazy to conduct your research before pumping your money into any ICO project, try as much as possible to check out the backgrounds of its founders. Often, the more credible and famous its founders are, the less likely it is that the ICO is a scam project.

Above all always remember not to invest your life savings in cryptocurrencies because just as cryptos can make you rich overnight, so also they could make you wretched overnight.

 

The #GreenEnergy #ICO with a #MOBILE #MINING app:
Credits during the ICO. VISIT https://goo.gl/BF7uFJ to participate in the pre-ICO at 0.5 cent per Credit! Invest via $ETH, $BTC or #Paypal
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Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse: ‘We are solving a problem measured in trillions of dollars’

Video in 720P Yahoo Feb 14 2018 Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse: ‘We are solving a problem measured in trillions of dollars’

Video in 720P Yahoo Feb 14 2018

Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse: ‘We are solving a problem measured in trillions of dollars’

#xrpthestandard #xrp #xrparmy #ripple

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